Check Student Understanding : How does the human immune system work? Define the following: white blood cells, antigens, antibodies, vaccines How do vaccines work? (For older students) How did. Edward Jenner discover the smallpox vaccine? What happened as a result? (Also see educationWorlds Internet Scavenger Hunt on the smallpox vaccine.). The flu (influenza) The flu (influenza) virus has been around a long time and appears in some form every year, although the severity of the outbreak and the particular strain (type of virus) varies. In, a severe pandemic killed millions, while in more recent history, the flu has sickened many, but resulted in vastly fewer deaths.
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What medical knowledge and science do we have now (that we didnt have at the time when these pandemics began) that can help prevent these serious diseases? The immune system and vaccines The human immune system uses white twilight blood cells to defend the body from harmful intruders—viruses and bacteria, also known as antigens. The white blood cells make antibodies specific to each intruder. The antibodies destroy the intruders or help white blood cells destroy them. Get a basic rundown of the immune system here. Vaccines, special medicines developed to fight specific bacteria or viruses, help the body produce antibodies to attack dangerous intruders. A vaccine contains a dead or weakened version of an antigen. Because the germ has been killed or weakened before it is used to make the vaccine, it doesn't make the person sick. Instead, the body reacts to the vaccine by making antibodies. Basic information about vaccines appears here. Using this timeline, older students can explore the history of vaccine development and learn how vaccines were used to eliminate the disease smallpox.
Symptoms : Possible flulike symptoms at the time of hiv infection, and after 5 to 15 years left untreated (at which point the person develops aids multiple, life-threatening illnesses such as rare cancers, pneumonia, fungal conditions, tuberculosis and other infections. Caused by : Human Immunodeficiency virus, a retrovirus that attacks the cells of the immune system does it still exist? Due to increased awareness, prevention efforts and treatment options, offer the. Incidence of aids is lower than that in some other countries. Hiv/aids does, however, remain a top public health concern, and the disease is of particular concern on a global scale. Check Student Understanding : Whats the difference between an epidemic and a pandemic? Name a pandemic from history. What caused (causes) it, and what are its symptoms?
Victims show dark spots on the cheeks and turn blue, suffocating as their lungs fill with a frothy, bloody substance. Caused by : a virus in the H1N1 family does it still exist? Different forms of the virus still exist, but scientists are not worried that this particular version will make a comeback. 1980s to today - aids (note: This topic recommended for grades 9 and.) by the end of 2004, 20 million people had died from hiv (Human Immunodeficiency virus/Aquired Immunodeficiency virus (aids). Nine out of 10 people living with hiv live in the developing world; 60 to 70 percent of those are in Sub-Saharan Africa. But the disease is spreading in every region, including India, business china, russia and the islands of the caribbean. Since the epidemic began, an estimated 1,129,127 people in the. Have been diagnosed with aids, and an estimated 48,000 Americans become infected with hiv each year.
After successful vaccination campaigns throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, in 1979 the world health Organization certified that smallpox had been eliminated. Also see educationWorlds Internet Scavenger Hunt on the smallpox vaccine. Symptoms : fever, fatigue, aches and pains, along with red lesions (sores) that become filled with pus, then crust and scab. Caused by : The variola virus does it still exist? Due to the success of vaccination campaigns, the disease was wiped out. Spanish (avian) Flu It may be hard to believe, but the flu killed nearly 40 million people at one point in history. In that 12-month period, more people succumbed to the flu than lost their lives in World War i, leading many to consider it the most devastating pandemics in all of recorded history. Symptoms : fever, nausea, aches, diarrhea and sometimes severe pneumonia.
Essay on Bird, flu : History, symptoms and Prevention
That figure represents one-third of the population. Fear gripped the continent as people began falling victim to the disease einstein in increasing numbers. People did not understand how the disease was spread or how to treat. To make matters worse, the gruesome nature of the illness added to the hysteria—the infected displayed the diseases trademark black boils, which oozed blood and pus. Symptoms : Chills, fever, vomiting, aches and pains, along with hard, painful, burning lumps on the body that turn black, split open and ooze pus and blood. Caused by : Yersinia pestis bacteria does it still exist? There are 1,000 to 3,000 cases worldwide each year, including 10 to 15 cases in the United States.
Due to improved sanitation, the disease is not likely to spread the way it did in the 1300s. The bubonic Plague is now treatable with antibiotics, and a vaccine is also available. Ancient time through 1970s Smallpox An astounding 300 million deaths were attributed to smallpox outbreaks during the 20th century alone. That figure certainly would have been greater were it not for the revolutionary work of a physician named Edward Jenner. Jenner realized that people who had already contracted cow pox did not contract smallpox. In 1796, he injected cow pox into an eight-year-old boy to test his theory. When the boy was proven to have been successfully inoculated, jenner had created the worlds first vaccine.
Some bacteria are helpful, while others can make us sick. V iruses, another major cause of illness, are smaller than bacteria and may have a spiny outside layer. Viruses cant reproduce on their own, so they infect cells and take them over in order to multiply. Here is a basic exploration of the concepts of bacteria and viruses. Older students can check out a detailed example using this image of the flu virus.
Check Student Understanding : What are bacteria? What are some differences between bacteria and viruses? Describe some of the flu virus internal structures. While disease has affected humans since the beginning of time, it wasnt until people began gathering in larger populations that infections began to reach epidemic levels. An epidemic happens when an infection (caused by a bacteria or virus) affects a large number of people within a given population, such as a city or geographic area. If it affects even greater numbers and a wider area, these outbreaks become pandemics. The video below discusses how pandemics spread: Older students can read more detailed information on pandemics, including what causes pandemics, the stages by which pandemics develop and a list of pandemics throughout history. Here are some notable ones: 1300s - the Black death Brought to europe from the far East via infected fleas that were riding on the backs of ship rats, the Black death (also known as the bubonic Plague) would go on to wipe out over.
Avian, flu, diary: lloyds Spotlight On Risk: H1N1
For example, the Black death ravaged Europe from the year 1347 to the early 1350s, killing almost one-third of the continents population. When a large number of people become seriously report ill due to the same bacteria or virus, it is called an epidemic —or, if the disease spreads globally, a pandemic. Help students put modern influenza outbreaks into perspective by comparing them with other epidemics and pandemics. Then, discuss how vaccines and other precautions work to reduce the likelihood of illness. Begin with some basic terms and explanation:. Bacteria and viruses, bacteria are microscopic one-celled organisms. Thousands of types of bacteria live almost everywhere. Bacteria can reproduce themselves (multiply).
Preclinical research on alternative pandemic influenza vlp vaccine approaches is expected to continue. Subjects, science, health, grade 5-12, brief Description, students learn about epidemics and pandemics, as well as vaccines and other precautions that can help prevent infections such as influenza. Students will: Explore epidemics and pandemics, view the modern influenza virus in historical context. Describe how vaccines work, identify actions that can help prevent the spread of infection. Keywords, flu, influenza, bacteria, virus, infection, disease, vaccine, immune, epidemic, pandemic, Black death, smallpox, aids. Materials needed, computer(s) with Internet access, if desired. Paper and pencils (if teachers want Student Understanding questions completed in written form, jungle rather than orally). Lesson Plan, at certain points in history, many people have become infected with a particular illness.
lipids on the surface of the vlp may activate the innate immune system providing protection against both the H1N1 and H5N1 strains.". The vpl vaccine was based upon three viral proteins including hemagglutinin (ha neuraminidase (na and matrix 1 (M1) all taken from the influenza strain of the 1918 Spanish flu. When put together, the proteins formed a three-dimensional structure that was similar to the virus, but without proper genetic material needed to divide and cause infection. This allowed the immune system to recognize and make antibodies against the foreign structure, and allowed for a much faster response when faced with the real virus. Priming the immune system with the vpl vaccine was therefore able to stave off later infections with the same virus. However, the immunization also protected against the avian flu vaccine, which is unusual for this type of vaccine. The mechanism for the protective action by the H1N1 vaccine is under further study. . Although cross protection has been seen in vaccines with the same hemagglutinin (HA) types, it has not been seen with different ha types as seen in this study. Cross protection against different ha types of influenza would provide protection against a number of different strains of flu, and would idea to protect against a possible pandemic outbreak and also more than one of the seasonal flu viruses.
All of the vlp-immunized animals, in both types of administered vaccine, were protected when exposed to a lethal dose of the original strain of the 1918 strain of influenza. Additionally, the animals were also protected from similar doses of contemporary and highly infectious avian influenza strain H5N1, taken from a human case in 2004. This image shows the detailed structure of the influenza virus, taken with an transmission electron micrograph (TEM). . vpl vaccines take certain viral particles, like proteins, which put together can prime the immune system to further attack of a real influenza virus. Photo credit: Fermilab Today, cdc, the preclinical results of the study are like published in the march 2009 online issue of the. Based on these pre-clinical results, scientists postulate that this form of live virus may be the next step to offering better immunity from infectious strains of influenza that cause both seasonal flu infectious and possibly more serious pandemic outbreaks. "Unlike other non-live influenza vaccines, the vlps are uniquely positioned to stimulate immunity through multiple mechanisms said. Penny heaton, Chief Medical Officer at novavax. "First, they contain (hemagglutinin) ha protein that is the same structure as the live virus, which may stimulate ha antibodies of several types that not only prevent the virus from attaching to cells but also prevent the virus from fusing with cells.
Avian, flu and Swine, flu
If you have suffered the flu recently, then you know that its quite miserable. All of the sneezing, sore throat, fever and aching can really put a damper on your day (or week for some of us). Even taking preventative measures like getting that seasons flu shot may not be enough to protect you from a highly infectious strain of influenza. Thanks to the collaborative efforts of the cdc and novavax Inc., a vaccine building biotech company, researchers may have the key to protect against these high-risk and potently infectious strains of the flu virus. Vaccines can be made from virus-like particles (VPL) to prevent further infection and scientists essay have utilized this idea to use vpls from the infamous 1918 Spanish influenza virus to protect against both the Spanish flu and a highly infectious strain of the avian flu strain. By using vpls from the 1918 outbreak of the Spanish influenza, scientists designed a recombinant vaccine to protect against the original virus strain and tested its effects against other highly pathogenic strains of influenza. Both mice and ferrets served as animal models, and were vaccinated either intravenously (by injection) or intranasal exposure (via nose).