C.) there were a number of ascetic sects in India whose members walked about naked as part of their spiritual discipline. The largest, Ajivikas, demanded complete nudity of its disciples. This group lasted about two thousand years before completely disappearing. Buddha was a naked ascetic before founding his own religion, and it has been suggested that Buddha had his followers wear robes mainly to distinguish them from the other sects.16 Today, most of the naked holy men of India are associated with the jains, members. Mahavira, founder of the jains, insisted on complete nudity for the monks as part of their vow to give up all worldly goods. In time there was a split in this group, nakedness being too much of a hardship for jains in the colder northern parts of India. These northerners donned robes and became known as suetambaras, or '4white clad while the southerners were thereafter referred to as Digambaras, or "clothed with the sky." The jains have many followers in India today.17 paul levalley, in his article "Ancient India compares the Greeks with. They spoke of efficiency.
Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt - akhenaten
It wasn't until 1896, some 1500 years later, that the Olympics were revived-but without nudity! "beauty to the Greeks was the very essence of virility. The perfect balance of mind and body followed the ancient Greek belief in 'meden agan which means 'nothing in excess.' And 'kalos k'agathos'-the 'beautiful and good'-was the touchstone and secret of the preeminence of ancient Greece for more than five hundred years."13. Nudity in Ancient India it is now known that social nudity in ancient Greece was encouraged please by the existence of nudity among the holy men of India. For example, when Alexander the Great heard reports of nude ascetics in India, he sent Onesicritus, a greek philosopher, to investigate the gymnosophists (a name given by the Greeks to these naked philosophers). The findings of Onesicritus must have impressed and intrigued Alexander, for he then traveled to India (in 326. C.) to meet with a gymnosophist group, and this meeting then led to other exchanges between the two countries.14 Pyrrho of Elis, founder of the philosophy of skepticism, studied with the gymnosophists and, upon returning to Elis, practiced their teachings, including nudism. 15Further, when the Greek army was in India, the soldiers participated in numerous religious observances that were accompanied by nude sports activities. For several centuries thereafter, Greek athletes competing in India were occasionally reported as being both nude and in loin cloth. In Alexander's time (356-323.
The first Olympic Festival for which there are records was held in 776. At least from that time forward, the the Olympic Games were specifically dedicated to the Greek gods. Athletes from Sparta are given historical credit for being the first to discard clothing while in training for competition. It's possible this occurred as early as the seventh century. Since these pioneering athletes won an abnormally high proportion of the prizes because their bodies were not restricted by clothing, other Greek athletes began to emulate the nudity of the Spartans. Thereafter, nudity was an integral part of the Olympic tradition until 393. D., when Roman Emperor Theodosium, Christian ruler of Greece, banned the Olympic Games because he considered them to be pagan ceremonies. The gymnasia and all it stood for was then treated with contempt.
During these games, women performed comfortably in the nude, as was the practice for men. "The Greek admiration for the human professional body and the willingness to display it were closely bound up with Greek honesty and intelligence. No one thought it wrong that young Spartan girls should go naked in public dances and processions. The young men who gathered to look upon the events displayed no lust or wantonness. Plutarch (the Greek biographer and historian) wrote that the appearance of these maidens was received with admiration, respect, and shamelessness."12. Eventually, nudity also became part of the tradition of the Olympic hibernation Games. Ancient historians suggest that the Olympic Games originated as far back as 1100. As peace treaty contests authorized by kings of the cities of Pisa, elis, and Sparta. The games derived their name from the valley of Olympia, where they were held.
Pericles, the famous Greek statesman, general, and athlete, said that men should harmoniously work for "the perfect beauty of our bodies and the manly virtues of our soul. We are lovers of beauty without having lost the taste for simplicity, and lovers of wisdom without loss of manly vigor."10. Darius, the persian king, relying on the report of a spy sent to observe greeks training for battle, mistakenly concluded from their attitude toward nudity and democracy that Greeks were weaklings. The army infiltrator returned to darius with an account of how the Greeks spent their time prancing around in the nude "or sitting, partially clothed, listening to idiots propound ridiculous ideas about freedom and equality for the individual citizen."11 Based on this information, darius expected. Though men of ancient Greece were offered an exceptional training as citizens (with the obvious exception of male slaves Greek women were denied the high-level education of the gymnasium. This inequality was speciously justified by reasoning that women had less need for education because they were not permitted to participate in civic affairs along with the men. Such discrimination, however, diminished with the appearance of a women's rights movement. Among the gains won by the women of this group was the establishment of female athletic competitions.
Nefertiti of Amarna - who was, nefertiti of Amarna
For example, the Greek gymnasium is rarely presented as a resume place for general education which, in fact, it was. Paul levalley, in an article appearing in the naturist magazine. Clothed with the sun offers a more accurate picture. "The Greeks could think of no higher tribute to their gods than to imitate them-to become as godlike as possible, both mentally and physically. It was the whole person that mattered: the well-developed mind in the well-developed body. Apollo, the god of athletics, was also the god of music. In fact, the athletes trained to music.
The gymnasiums were where philosophers like socrates hung about. Almost every major school of Greek philosophy was headquartered in a gymnasium. As Greek religion declined and was replaced by philosophy, socrates often advocated nudity as a form of honesty."8 It is clear from this that the ancient Greeks sought balance-their goal of The golden mean in individual accomplishments as well as in matters of state. Beginning with exercises in the nude, a typical day for the Greek student is described by papalas in the article cited above: "After several hours of activity and instruction about the body, he bathed and went to his classroom-most often in the nude, for the. Teachers and scholars attempted to establish an equilibrium between mind and body. The student, therefore, was required to devote the same amount of effort to physical progress as to mental."9.
"They came to an age that understood them not." he adds, rather dejectedly, that although future generafions may be more understanding of their message, ".our own day gives them a miserly recognition."6. While it is known that Akhen-Aton and Nefertiti were not the first Egyptians to luxuriate nude in the sun's rays (a fourteenth century,. Carving of a nude sumerian priest is preserved in the British Museum, and a fifteenth century,. Painting of a nude Egyptian girl lutist is found on the wall of a thebes tomb he and his alluring consort did have their "day in the sun breathing life into a freshly idealistic concept of community. Nudity In Ancient Greece, centuries later, Pharaoh Akhen-Aton's passion for holistic living was enthusiastically practiced by the early Greeks. While many cultures have recognized the contributions of ancient Greece to law, politics, literature, art, and philosophy, not much has been recorded about early Greek advocacy of freedom from clothing when practical and appropriate.
The dress of both the upper and lower classes within Greek society was in accordance with the simplicity and forthrightness characteristic of Greek philosophy-that a draped garment that could be taken off in a second. Even the fancier gowns designed for both sexes, with jeweled or metal shoulder clips, were made from one piece of beautifully draped material. "When a greek wished to dance or work, he simply slipped out of his clothing and proceeded. It was the natural thing to do, and no one was dismayed eing a nude person dancing or working. Archaeologists have found many vases depicting completely naked performers at festivals and laborers in the fields writes Anthony. Papalas in his article "Greek attitudes Toward Nudity."7. Historians acknowledge this ancient Greek body-attitude mainly when they write about the athletic training that took place in the Greek gymnasium. The very word gymnasium is based on the root word gymnos (meaning "naked the gymnasium being defined, thereby, as a place where one stripped naked to exercise. While nudity was so common in early Greek athletics and sculpture that historically it cannot be overlooked, historians tend to downplay or ignore the religious and philosophic foundations for nudism in Greek life.
Essay, research Paper The influence
On for the scattered stones that had formed the original wall of Aton's Temple, archaeologists have found and deciphered the pharaoh's famous "Hymn to Aton, the sun God a portion of which appears in the hebrew scriptures as Psalm 104 of the Old Testament. "Through this poem writes. King queen of the sun, "the pharaoh reveals himself to be a lover of beauty in nature, in art, and in man."4. However, some of the archaeologists who unraveled the story of the sun Pharaoh had difficulty accepting what they found and became highly critical of Akhen-Aton and Nefertiti. "Brought up in an environment of Victorian and puritanical notions, they condemned these entrancing figures of Egyptian history because they discovered that not only the Pharaoh and his wife but also their children and officials went around with too few clothes (transparent at that!). The spontaneity, freedom, and humanistic values espoused in the lifestyle of this remarkable couple brought ions scathing criticism and retaliation from the conservative priests of the "old religion." Upon his death, akhen-Aton was succeeded by son-in-law Tutankh-Aton king Tut famous for the fabulous gold and jewels. "They practiced a religion and nudist way of life that was far ahead of their time writes. DeHoratev of the sun King and his queen.
Meanwhile, the women attend to the children, collect fruit, spin cotton, and weave hammocks. By three o'clock in the afternoon, their day's work over, men and women gather together, drink fermented chica, make bows, arrows, necklaces, and headdresses, and decorate their bodies. It is a the life of unhurried simplicity.2. How remarkable it is that such idyllic scenes of ancient and perhaps prehistoric times still co-exist with our modernized, stress-filled lifestyles and complex governmental structures. Nudity in Early Egypt, a fascinating tale of early sun worship and nudity was unearthed in 1887 at Tell-el-Amarna, a small Egyptian village on the banks of the nile some 200 miles south of cairo. There, an Arab woman accidentally stumbled upon the baked-clay tablet archives of Pharaoh Akhen-Aton (. It was learned through the subsequent translation of these tablets that the brilliant young pharaoh and his exquisitely beautiful queen, nefertiti, considered the sun, Aton, to be the true wellspring of life and thus justified the practice of nudism for spiritual and physical advancement.3. Because of the discovery of these tablets and other artifacts at Tell-el Amarna, the seat of Pharaoh Akhen-Aton's government, it is now well known that he was not only a great religious reformer and mystic, who disputed the pantheism of the traditional priesthood, but also.
in communities of 50 people. The population of Roraima is about 100,000. Anthropologists, the roman Catholic Church, and Indian-rights groups fear that forced acculturation by an onslaught of whites will further reduce the yanomami population, largely through disease. Because of their isolation, the Indians have no immunity against common viruses and can easily die from flu or a cold.". The tupari tribe of the rio branco, in the Amazon jungles of Brazil, furnish another example of nude living among aborigines. Tibor sekelj, who lived with the tupari for four months, wrote: "It is no wonder that the tupari never created any kind of clothing, for the weather is always warm. Their natural nudity fits perfectly into the framework of their surroundings and, except for ceremony or decoration, they never think of covering themselves.". Men of the tupari set off before sunup to hunt. Those men and boys remaining in the village work at preparing the ground for planting or collect firewood and building materials.
Even today, in various remote areas of the warmer climes, naked societies persist as primitive tribes whose members do not wear clothes. These societies point up, among other things, how drastically our attitudes toward nudity and social organization have changed throughout human history. Unfortunately, modern civilization's puritanical laws of decency have labeled unclothed tropical-zone cultures as offensive and inferior. Missionaries, settlers, and tradespeople have effectively forced compliance with western dress codes wherever primitive cultures are found. Due to such diligence, we are now able to travel worldwide to exotic islands, join African safaris, and explore south American jungles without having to confront the "embarrassment" of viewing tribal nakedness. Inexcusably, as civilization encroaches upon many of these out-of-the-way places, the aboriginal cultures are often severely damaged or destroyed by the invading virus of a technologically superior society. Enticed by trinkets and modern conveniences, the native populations almost invariably succumb to the customs, the clothing, diseases, and problems of our intrusive culture. In 1988, the january 3rd issue of The. Los Angeles Times reported that the yanomamis of the remote northern Brazilian territory of Roraima, a primitive and naked tribe, are in danger of extinction because the government has discovered gold and diamonds on their land.
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