The Iranian penal code distinguishes two types of punishments: Hudud (fixed punishment) and the qisas ( retribution ) or diyya ( Blood money or Talion Law ). Punishments falling within the category of Hududs are applied to people committing offenses against the State, such as adultery, alcohol consumption, burglary or petty theft, rebellions against Islamic authority, apostasy and homosexual intercourse (considered contrary to the spirit of Islam). 74 Punishments include death by hanging, stoning 75 or decapitation, amputation or flagellation. Victims of private crimes, such as murder or rape, can exercise a right to retribution (Qisas) or decide to accept "blood money" (diyyah or Talion Law). 76 Harsh punishments edit see also: Stoning Iran Following traditional shariah punishment for thieves, courts in Iran have sometimes sentenced offenders to amputation of both "the right hand and left foot cut off, making it difficult, if not impossible, for the condemned to walk, even. 77 Shariah also includes stoning and explicitly states that stones used must be small enough to not kill instantly. As of July 2010, the Iranian penal code authorizes stoning as a punishment.
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Peech, he replied to a question about human rights by stating that Iran has fewer prisoners than America and that "the human rights situation in Iran is relatively a good one, when compared. With some european countries and the United States." peech to the United Nations, he commented on human rights only to say "certain powers" (unnamed) were guilty of violating it, "setting up secret prisons, abducting persons, trials and secret punishments without any regard to due process. " 63 Islamic Republic officials have also attacked Israeli violations of Palestinian human rights. 61 Constitutional and legal foundations edit Explanations for violations edit Among the explanations for violations of human rights in the Islamic Republic are: Theological differences edit The legal and governing principles upon which the Islamic Republic of Iran is based differ in some respects from. Further information: cairo declaration on Human Rights in Islam about Sharia law, as interpreted in the Islamic Republic, calls for inequality of rights between genders, religions, sexual orientation, as well as for other internationally criticized practices such as stoning as a method of execution. 64 In 1984, Iran's representative to the United Nations, sai rajaie-khorassani, declared the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to be representing a "secular understanding of the judeo-christian tradition which could not be implemented by muslims and did not "accord with the system of values recognized. 66 In a fatwa issued by ayatollah Khomeini in early 1988, he declared Iran's Islamic government "a branch of the absolute governance of the Prophet of God" and "among the primary ordinances of Islam having "precedence over all secondary ordinances such as prayer, fasting, and. 69 It calls for gender equality (article 20 and protection of the rights of women (article 21 freedom of expression (article 23 freedom of press and communication (article 24) and freedom of association (article 27). Three recognized religious minorities "are free to perform their religious rites and ceremonies." 70 However, resume along with these guarantees the constitution includes what one scholar calls "ominous Catch-22s such as All laws and regulations must conform to the principles of Islam. 71 The rights of women, of expression, of communication and association, of the press 72 are followed by modifiers such as "within the limits of the law "within the precepts of Islam "unless they attack the principles of Islam "unless the law states otherwise "as.
In Syria "taxi drivers rarely talk politics; the Iranians will talk of nothing else." 58 A theory of why human rights abuses in the Islamic Republic are not as severe as Syria, afghanistan (under the taliban or Iraq (under Saddam Hussein ) comes from the. So freedom of thought and expression is essential to the system, at least within the top circles of religious leadership. And if the mullahs can behave that way among themselves in places like the holy city of Qom, how can the rest of a modern-day society be told it cannot think and explore the world of experience for itself? 59 Perspective of the Islamic Republic edit Iranian officials have not always agreed on the state of human rights in Iran. In April 2004, reformist like president Mohammad Khatami stated "we certainly have political prisoners in Iran and. People who are in prison for their ideas." Two days later, however, he was contradicted by judiciary chief ayatollah Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi, saying "we have no political prisoners in Iran" because Iranian law does not mention such offenses. "The world may consider certain cases, by their nature, political crimes, but because we do not have a law in this regard, these are considered ordinary offenses." 60 Iran's president President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and other government officials have compared Iran's human rights record favorably.
49 The unchr did not pass such a resolution in 2002, when the government of Iran extended an invitation to the un "Working Group on Arbitrary detention and the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression". However, according to the organization Human Rights Watch, when these officials did visit the country, found human rights conditions wanting and issued reports critical of the Islamic government, not only did the government not implement their recommendations it retaliated "against witnesses who testified to the. 52 53 The resolution has passed in the un general Assembly every year since. 52 The european Union has also criticized the Islamic Republic's human rights record, expressing concern in 2005, 2007 54 and on presenting a message to Iran's ambassador in Paris expressing concern over the worsening human rights situation in Iran. 55 On, the european Parliament voted to adopt a resolution condemning the Islamic government's disregard of the human rights of its citizens. Later that year, Iran's government announced it would suspend dialogue with the european Union concerning human rights in Iran. 56 On 9 February 2010, the european Union and United States issued a joint statement condemning "continuing human rights violations" in Iran. 57 Relative openness edit One observation made by non-governmental sources of the state of human rights in the Islamic Republic is that it is not so severe that the Iranian public is afraid to criticize its government publicly to strangers.
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In that of the Islamic Republic, they were fear, death, terror, horror, and the most frequent of all nightmare (kabos). 32 However, the vast majority of killings of political prisoners occurred in the first decade of the Islamic Republic, after which violent repression lessened. 47 With the rise of the Iranian reform movement and the election of moderate Iranian president Mohammad Khatami in 1997 numerous moves were made to modify the Iranian civil and penal codes in order to improve the human rights situation. The predominantly reformist parliament drafted several bills allowing increased freedom of speech, gender equality, and the banning of torture. These were all dismissed or significantly watered down by the guardian council and leading conservative figures in the Iranian government at the time.
Citation needed According to The Economist magazine: The tehran spring of ten years ago has now given way to a bleak political winter. The new government continues to close down newspapers, silence dissenting voices and ban or censor books and websites. The peaceful demonstrations and protests of the Khatami era are no longer tolerated: in January 2007 security forces attacked striking bus drivers in Tehran and arrested hundreds of them. In March police beat hundreds of men and women who had assembled to commemorate International Women's day. 48 International criticism edit since the founding of the Islamic Republic, human rights violations of religious minorities have been the subject of resolutions and decisions by the United Nations and its human rights bodies, the council of Europe, european Parliament and United States Congress. 49 According to The minority rights Group, in 1985 Iran became "the fourth country ever in the history of the United Nations" to be placed on the agenda of the general Assembly because of "the severity and the extent of this human rights record". to 2001, United Nations Commission on Human Rights (unchr) passed resolutions about human rights violations against Iran's religious minorities especially the bahá'ís.
36 by 1976, this repression was softened considerably thanks to publicity and scrutiny by "numerous international organizations and foreign newspapers" as well as the newly elected President of the United States, jimmy carter. 37 38 Islamic revolution edit during the 1978-79 overthrow of the pahlavi government, protestors were fired upon by troops and prisoners were executed. The real and imaginary human rights violations contributed directly to the Shah's demise, 39 (although some have argued so did his scruples in not violating human rights more as urged by his generals 40 ). The 1977 deaths of the popular and influential modernist Islamist leader Ali Shariati and the ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini 's son Mostafa were believed to be assassinations perpetrated by savak by many Iranians. 41 42 On 8 September 1978, ( Black Friday ) troops fired on religious demonstrators in Zhaleh (or Jaleh) Square.
The clerical leadership announced that "thousands have been massacred by zionist troops" (i.e. Rumored Israel troops aiding the Shah 43 Michel foucault reported 4000 had been killed, 44 and another European journalist reported that the military left behind a carnage. 45 Post-revolution edit The Islamic revolution is thought to have a significantly worse human rights record than the pahlavi dynasty it overthrew. According to political historian Ervand Abrahamian, whereas less than 100 political prisoners had been executed between 19, more than 7900 were executed between. The prison system was centralized and drastically expanded. Prison life was drastically worse under the Islamic Republic than under the pahlavis. One who survived both writes that four months under warden Ladjevardi took the toll of four years under savak. 46 In the prison literature of the pahlavi era, the recurring words had been boredom and monotony.
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He outlawed Mosaddegh's political group the national Front, and arrested most of its leaders. political activists of the tudeh party were arrested, 26 (including 477 in the armed forces forty were executed, another 14 died under torture and over 200 were sentenced to life imprisonment. Edit In 1971, a guerrilla attack on a gendarmerie post (where three police were killed and two guerrillas freed, known as the " siahkal incident sparked "an intense guerrilla struggle" against the government, and harsh government countermeasures. 29 guerrillas embracing feasibility " armed struggle " to overthrow the Shah, and inspired by international Third World anti-imperialist revolutionaries ( mao zedong, ho chi book minh, and Che guevara were quite active in the first half of the 1970s 30 31 when hundreds of them died. 32 According to Amnesty International, the Shah carried out at least 300 political executions. 33 Torture was used to locate arms caches, safe houses and accomplices of the guerrillas, in addition to its possible ability to persuade enemies of the state to become supporters, instead. 34 In 1975, the human rights group Amnesty International whose membership and international influence grew greatly during the 1970s 35 issued a report on treatment of political prisoners in Iran that was "extensively covered in the european and American Press".
Burglars in particular were subjected to the bastinado (beating the soles of the feet and the strappado (suspended in the air by means of a rope tied around the victims arms) to "reveal their hidden loot". Suspected spies and assassins were "beaten, deprived of sleep, and subjected to the qapani" (the binding of arms tightly behind the back) which sometimes caused a joint to crack. But for political prisoners who were primarily communists there was a "conspicuous absence of torture" under reza shah's rule. 21 The main form of pressure was solitary confinement and the withholding of "books, newspapers, visitors, food packages, and proper medical care". While often threatened with the qapani, political prisoners "were rarely subjected." 22 Mohammad reza shah edit mohammad Mosaddegh, iranian democracy advocate and deposed pm in Pahlavi dynasty mohammad reza became monarch after his father was deposed by soviets and Americans in 1941. Political prisoners (mostly communists) were released by the occupying powers, and the shah (crown prince at the time) no dissertation longer had control of the parliament. 23 But after an attempted assassination of the Shah in 1949, he was able to declare martial law, imprison communists and other opponents, and restrict criticism of the royal family in the press. 24 Following the pro-Shah coup d'état that overthrew the Prime minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in 1953, the Shah again cracked down on his opponents, and political freedom waned.
torture, and executions to stifle political dissent. The pahlavi dynasty has sometimes been described as a "royal dictatorship". 16 or "one man rule". 17 According to one history of the use of torture by the state in Iran, abuse of prisoners varied at times during the pahlavi reign. 18 reza shah edit reza shah, founder of the pahlavi dynasty The reign of reza shah was authoritarian and dictatorial at a time when authoritarian governments and dictatorships were common in the region and the world and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was some. 19 Freedom of the press, workers' rights, and political freedoms were restricted under reza shah. Independent newspapers were closed down, political parties even the loyal revival party were banned. The government banned all trade unions in 1927, and arrested 150 labor organizers between 1920 Physical force was used against some kinds of prisoners common criminals, suspected spies, and those accused of plotting regicide.
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad considered to have "deteriorated markedly according. 3, following the hibernation 2009 election protests there were reports of killing of demonstrators, the torture, rape and killing of detained protesters, 4 5 and the arrest and publicized mass trials of dozens of prominent opposition figures in which defendants "read confessions that bore every sign. 9, restrictions and punishments in the Islamic Republic of Iran which violate international human rights norms include harsh penalties for crimes, punishment of " victimless crimes " such as fornication and homosexuality, execution of offenders under 18 years of age, restrictions on freedom of speech. Reported abuses falling outside of the laws of the Islamic Republic that have been condemned include the execution of thousands of political prisoners in 1988, and the widespread use of torture to extract repudiations by prisoners of their cause and comrades on video for propaganda. 10 Also condemned has been firebombings of newspaper offices and attacks on political protesters by "quasi-official organs of repression particularly " hezbollah and the murder of dozens of government opponents in the 1990s, allegedly by "rogue elements" of the government. Officials of the Islamic Republic have responded to criticism by stating that Iran has "the best human rights record" in the muslim world; 11 that it is not obliged to follow "the west's interpretation" of human rights; 12 and that the Islamic Republic. 13 According to Iranian officials, those who human rights activists say are peaceful political activists being denied due process rights are actually guilty of offenses against the national security of the country, 14 and those protesters claiming Ahmadinejad stole the 2009 election are actually part.
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This article is about human rights in Iran. For more details on human rights in post- revolutionary, iran, see, human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran. For more details on human rights under the. Pahlavi dynasty, see, human rights in the Imperial State of Iran. The state of human rights in Iran has been criticized both by, iranians and international human rights activists, dillard writers, and ngos since long before the formation of the current state. The United Nations, general Assembly and the, human Rights Commission 1 have condemned prior and ongoing abuses in Iran in published critiques and several resolutions. The government of Iran is criticized both for restrictions and punishments that follow the Islamic Republic's constitution and law, and for actions that do not, such as the torture, rape, and killing of political prisoners, and the beatings and killings of dissidents and other civilians. While the monarchy under the rule of the shahs had a generally abysmal human rights record according to most Western watchdog organizations, the current Islamic Republic does not have a positive reputation either, with its human rights record under the administration of President.